Bursa - is a small sac filled with fluid that cushions the tendon from the bone.
Labrum - is a rim of cartilage that helps to stabilize the joint.
Capsule - is an envelope filled with fluid that assists in joint stability.
The shoulder is classified as a ball and socket joint. It is the most mobile joint in your body.
There are four common problems a person may have with his/her shoulder:
Impingement caused by inflammation of the rotator cuff and bursa. Pain occurs when raising the patient's arm above his/her head.
Recurrent Dislocation caused by a tear in the labrum or excess laxity in the joint's capsule may result in a disability.
Painful Instability occurs when a shoulder is forced beyond the joint's normal range of motion causing the ball to move abnormally in the socket.
Arthritis may be caused by long-term wear and tear, infections, injuries or a variety of other diseases. It is characterized by roughened joint surfaces with worn cartilage. Fragmentation of bone and cartilage is also known as loose bodies.
Four Common Surgical Procedures Performed on Shoulders
Arthroscopy: allows the surgeon to look inside the shoulder joint using small incisions and identify the problems. The surgeon may often be able to correct the problem using this procedure by removing loose unwanted tissue from the joint, with less disturbance to the joint. Recovery time is usually short.
Bankart procedure: an operation that tightens ligaments and repairs torn capsular detachments, restoring shoulder stability. It is often performed for athletes involved in throwing sports who suffer from recurrent dislocations and subluxations. It allows the patient to return to contact sports such as baseball, football, wrestling, and ice hockey because the muscles and tendons are returned to their anatomic locations.
Rotator cuff repair: a procedure that is performed to repair the tear, therefore, relieving the patient's pain and improving function of muscles and tendons that move the joint. The surgery is commonly performed on older patients who complain of pain and weakness in the deltoid region that occurs with normal daily activities as well as work and sports. The pain is often worse at night.
Prosthetic shoulder replacement: a procedure involving replacement of the head of the humerus or "ball" (hemiarthroplasty) or in some cases the resurfacing of the "socket" or glenoid as well (total shoulder replacement). This surgery is sometimes performed for patients with arthritis in the shoulder joint because it provides pain relief, which is the major indication for the procedure. Improvement of function may result but is less predictable.